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James Randi Educational Foundation

An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural

Introduction | "R" Reading | Curse of the Pharaoh | End-of-the-World Prophecies

Index | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z

Schmeidler, Dr. Gertrude A parapsychologist known for her discovery of the “sheep/goats effect” in ESP testing. She found that believers (“sheep”) doing standard card-guessing tests had 0.4 percent more “hits” than nonbelievers (“goats”), who obtained 0.3 percent less that what would be expected by chance alone. The total number of tests was 250,875 guesses.

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Copyright (C) 1995-2007 James Randi.

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